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13th World Summit on Heart & Acute Cardiac Care, will be organized around the theme ““Novel Advances and Remedial Therapies in the field of Cardiology and Heart Diseases””

Heart Care 2022 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Heart Care 2022

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Cardiovascular system also called as circulatory system or blood vascular system”. It consists of heart, which is muscular pumping action, and closed system of blood vessels named as arteries, Veins, and capillaries

The main function of the cardiovascular system is transport oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and other organs in our body. Angiotensin is a peptide hormone that regulates blood pressure and maintains body fluids in the body. The main function of angiotensin is vasoconstrictor and increase blood pressure. Angiotensin system consists of two enzymes – Angiotensin1, Angiotensin2. Angiotensin 2 is used for heart strokes.


  Hypertension can leads to heart diseases. High blood pressure causes thickening of the blood vessel walls. When combined with cholesterol it leads to deposition in the blood vessels.  Insufficient oxygen supply to the heart leads to myocardial infraction.



Obesity can leads to hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. The risk of obesity in cardio vascular diseases involves changes in body composition that leads to alteration in heart structure.



Echocardiography is a cardiac test also called as “echocardiogram or cardiac echo”. Echocardiography is a test that produces ultrasound of the heart; it is a type of medical imaging of the heart .The image is called “echocardiogram”.

Echocardiogram is used to know information about:

  • Blood clots in the heart chambers
  • Pressure in the heart
  • The image shows any problems that related to heart problems.

Types:

  • Transthoracic echocardiography
  • Trans esophageal Echocardiography
  • Stress echocardiography
  • Three dimensional echocardiography
  • Fetal echocardiography


Cardiac CT:

Cardiac CT (COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY) is a test that uses x-rays to get detailed information about our heart and blood vessels. It is a painless imaging test that provides 3-dimensional model of the whole heart.

MRI Scan:

Magnetic resonance imaging scan is a type of body scan that uses radiology and powerful magnetic field to examine the whole body. MRI scan provides information about internal structure of the body. MRI scan gives information about:

  • Coronary heart diseases
  • Congenital heart failure
  • Heart stroke or heart attack


Heart failure is chronic condition that result’s heart muscles are not able to pump enough blood to the body organs. Insufficient blood leads to poor oxygen supply to the body. It leads to “heart failure”.

TYPES OF HEART FAILURE:

  • Right –sided heart failure
  • Left –sided heart failure
  • Systolic heart failure
  • Diastolic heart failure

Myocardial Infraction

Myocardial infraction otherwise called as “HEART ATTACK”. Myocardial infraction occurs due to blockage of blood flow to the heart muscles. Myocardial infraction occurs when blood clot bocks the blood flow to the muscles, lack of blood, tissue loses oxygen and leads to “ISCHEMIA”.

SYMPTOMS:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Tightness in the neck, back or arms
  • fatigue

RESUSCITATIONS: Cardiac pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) is a life-saving technique and it is an emergency procedure that combines chest compression or providing artificial ventilation to the people who is in cardiac arrest or heart attack for restore spontaneous blood circulation.

Types of Cardiac Pulmonary Resuscitations:

  • High frequency chest compression
  • Prone CPR
  • Precordial CPR
  • Open chest CPR

Emergency Infusions:

Cardiac emergencies are including: cardiac arrest, acute pericarditis, heart failure.

Emergency Drugs:

  • Adrenaline
  • Lidocaine
  • Atropine
  • Amiodarone
  • Aspirin
  • Beta blockers
  • ACE inhibitors

Congenital heart diseases are common types of birth defect that affects the normal way the heart works.  Congenital heart diseases are present at birth that affects the structure of the heart.

Common Pediatric and  Congenital Heart Diseases:

  • Atrial septal defect
  • Aortic stenosis
  • Atrioventricular canal defect
  • Hypo plastic left  hearted syndrome
  • Patent ductus arteriosus

Preventive cardiology is specially subjected to lowering the risk factors for developing heart diseases in patients who are suffering from cardiac diseases.

Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases:

  • Control hypertension( high blood pressure)
  • Maintain blood glucose levels
  • Avoid unhealthy food
  • Avoid smoking
  • Cholesterol management
  • Control obesity
  • Advance cardiac imaging
  • Life-style changes

Heart transplantation also called as “cardiac transplant “.  Heart transplantation is a surgery that performed on patients with last stage heart failures or coronary heart diseases.

Diseased heart is removed and replaces it with healthy heart from donor. Most hearts compulsory transplanted within 4 hours.

Some complications may occur with heart surgery, Risk of heart transplantation may include:

  • Kidney failure
  • Bleeding
  • Infection after surgery
  • Breathing problems
  • Formation of blood clots

Genetics may influence the risk for developing cardiac diseases in many ways. A sudden change in gene (mutation) can leads to heart diseases.

INHERITED CARDIAC DISORDERS:

  • Atrial fibrillation
  • Arrhythmias
  • Long QT syndrome
  • Short QT syndrome
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  • Arrythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy
  • Brugada syndrome
  • Marfan syndrome
  • Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome

Geriatric means medical care for older adult’s i.e. the age of people above 65 years old. The main object of geriatric cardiology is providing cardiovascular care to the older adults who are suffering from cardiac diseases.

Geriatric cardiology improved outcomes in health, social well-being, and care to adults

The circulation of heart involves three types:

  • SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION
  • CORONARY CIRCULATION
  • PULMONARY CIRCULATION

SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION:  The process involved in systemic circulation is carried oxygenated blood from the left ventricle through the blood vessels of arteries and capillaries to the tissues of the body and returns deoxygenated blood through veins in the right atrium of the heart.

CORONARY CIRCULATION: Blood vessels supply blood to the heart muscles. Coronary arteries supply oxygenated blood to the heart muscles and coronary veins carries deoxygenated blood drains away from the tissue of the heart.

PULMONARY CIRCULATION: pulmonary circulation involves circulation of blood between heart and lungs.

ARRYTHMIA:

Irregular heart beat or improper heart beat i.e. too fast or too slow.

Arrhythmia is due to improper working  of electrical impulse in heart.

SYMPTOMS: Chest pain, dizziness.

Electrophysiology study is a test that uses electrical system or activities used to detect abnormal heartbeats or arrhythmia.

Electrophysiology of heart involves using catheters placed into the heart and detects arrhythmia or abnormal heart beat.

Risk Factors:

  • Infection
  • Dizziness
  • Blood clots some times

Coronary heart disease is caused by formation of plaque in the walls of the arteries i.e. coronary arteries (the major blood vessel) or build-up of plaque in the walls of arteries. Plaque is made up of cholesterol or fat which causes narrowed arteries. It leads to insufficient blood supply to the heart.

Symptoms

  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain

Medication:

  • Calcium channel blockers
  • Beta blockers
  • Aspirin
  • Angiotensin converting enzyme

Ischemia is the condition in which insufficient or lack of blood flow to the heart leads to decrease oxygen and nutrient supply to the tissues or organs.

SYMPTOMS:

  1. Chest pain
  2. Abdominal pain
  3. Garble your speech

Types of ischemia heart diseases:

  • Obstructive coronary artery diseases
  • Non- obstructive coronary artery disease
  • Coronary micro vascular disease
  • Myocardial infraction
  • Angina pectoris
  • Sudden cardiac death
  • Coronary artery diseases

Neuroradiology is the study of neurology related to the heart diseases. The concepts including neuroradiology is neurological, neuroanatomical, and neurophysiological aspects in cardiology.

The result of stress may affect the heart is considered in terms of heart’s  interconnection with nervous system including peripheral and central nervous system.

Neuroradiology provides the pathophysiological relation between nervous system and cardiovascular system. 

Cardiovascular systems are controlled by the autonomic nervous system.

Neuro cardiology disorders:

Ø  Arrhythmias

Ø  Stroke

Ø  Epilepsy

Medication:

  •   Aldosterone antagonist – spironolactone
  • Adrenoreceptor agonist- clonidine

Now days the death rate for cardiovascular diseases has increased in women than men. We thought that cancer is the main cause leading to raise death rate in women, but today cardiovascular diseases plays a main role to increase death rate in women.

MOST COMMON WOMEN’S CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES:

  • coronary artery disease
  •  peripheral arterial disease
  •  Cardiomyopathy
  • congenital heart disease 
  • abnormal heart rhythms
  • coronary artery disease
  • heart attack
  • stroke
  • Hypertension

Cardiac Problems during pregnancy:

  • Myocardial infraction
  • Hypertension
  • Arrhythmias
  • Peripartum cardiomyopathy

As per WHO(world health organization) Cardiac rehabilitation is defined as some activities and interventions provide for the people that results improved health and recovered from the heart diseases.

Stages of cardiac rehabilitation:

  • Medical evaluation
  • Physical activities
  • Life style education
  • Support and care
  • Stress management

Cardio-oncology is the management of cardiovascular toxicity. The main object of cardio-oncology is diagnosed and monitoring the cardiovascular diseases.

CARDIO-ONCOLOGY SERVICES:

  • Primary prevention for emergency patients
  • Secondary prevention
  • Observing  early cardio toxicity
  • Other cardiovascular toxicity management

The drugs which are used to treat condition of ischemia or ischemia heart diseases are called as “Anti-ischemic drugs “or anti-ischemic drug therapy.

ANTI-ISCHEMIC DRUGS:

CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS:

  • Verapamil
  • Diltiazem
  • Nifidepine
  • Amlodipine
  • felodipine

NITRATES:

SHORT ACTING: Nitro glycerin, Glyceryl trinitrate

LONG ACTING: Isoborbide dinitrate , isoborbide trinitrate, pentaerythritol tetranitrate.

BETA BLOCKERS: Propanolol, metoprolol, atenolol.

ANTI-PLATELET DRUGS:  Aspirin, abciximab, clopidogrel.

Cardiac nursing is a nursing that help’s to the people who are suffering from conditions of cardiovascular diseases. Cardiac nurses are registered nurses help to treat conditions such as myocardial infraction, congestive heart failure, unstable angina under the direction of cardiologist.

CARDIAC NURSING SERVICING:

  • Review on patient heart condition
  • Gives information about patient heart function
  • Provide diagnostic methods
  • Medical caring

An electro cardio gram is one of the fastest and easiest tests used to estimate the heart. This test includes electrodes are placed on the certain parts like chest, arms, legs .Then electrodes are connected to ECG by lead wires. This ECG test provides information regarding heart rhythm and electrical activity of the heart, heart related problems such as arrhythmias, shortness of breath, dizziness and other cardiovascular problems.  

The results of ECG may affects in some conditions such as

  • Pregnancy
  • Obesity
  • Electrolytes imbalance
  • Certain medicine

Heart murmurs are sounds such as whooshing or swishing of blood flow through the heart. These are detected by the doctors by using stethoscope during a physical exam.

SYMPTOMS:

  • Chest pain
  • Chronic cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • Enlarge liver
  • Dizziness
  • Heavy sweating
  • fatigue

TYPES OF HEART MURMURS:

  1. Systolic heart murmurs
  2. Diastolic heart murmurs
  3. Continuous heart murmurs

TESTS:

  • Cardiac catheterization
  • Chest x-ray
  • Electrocardiography
  • echocardiography

TREATMENT:

ANTI-COAGULANTS:  Aspirin, warfarin, apixaban, rivaroxaban and others.

DIURETICS:  Ethacrynic acid, furosemide, bumetanide.

ACE inhibitors: captopril, enalapril, minopril fosinopril.

BETA-BLOCKERS: propranolol, atenolol.

One or more of the valves in your heart doesn’t work in proper way can leads to heart valve diseases. Heart valves prevent backward flow of blood and keep the blood flow in correct direction. In some times heart valve doesn’t open or close properly, this leads to blood flow to the heart is disrupted.

SYMPTOMS:

  • Heart murmurs
  • Chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • arrhythmias

TYPES OF HEART VALVE DISEAESES:

  • valvular stenosis
  • valvular prolapse
  • Regurgitation